Beta Glucan is a safe and massively researched biological response modifier (BRM) that nutritionally contributes to normalization and activation of immune cells through the Macrophage, Dendritic and additional immune cells.

In its most effective form, Beta Glucan is extracted from the yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of Baker’s yeast as Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, a purified isolate with any harmful yeast proteins removed and a process that helps avoid reaggregation, agglomeration, or clumping after exposure to water in the digestive sequence which can impair bioavailability to the immune system. More than 70 years of scientific research and clinical trials on yeast derived Beta Glucan confirms this composition is a potent and safe immuno-potentiator. Published research reported in the peer-reviewed “Letters in Applied Microbiology” – PMID: 12358685 – by Dr. Kenneth W. Hunter, Jr, ScD, et al from the University of Nevada School of Medicine confirms microparticulate (small particle), non-aggregated Beta Glucan is a potent immune potentiation isolate.

U.S. Patent 6,476,003 in which I participated with Kenneth W. Hunter ScD and Ruth Gault PhD from the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept. of Microbiology as co-inventors states, “…. As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.”

In further published research in the Letters in Applied Microbiology by Kenneth W. Hunter ScD, Gault RA, BErner MD; from the U. of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology, the peer reviewed research (PMID:12358685) stated, “…there was evidence that macrophages…, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ [microns] diameter size range. … Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form”

The process of extraction, including particle size reduction and protection to prevent reaggregation, has a direct bearing on the degree of immune potentiation of any particular Beta Glucan product, with immuno-potentiation abilities ranging from negligible to extremely high. The microparticulate size of 1-3 microns, versus larger globular or reaggregated particulate glucan, is indicated by research to be more potent in immune response potentiation as evidenced by the increased nitric oxide burst in the macrophage cells.  The nitric oxide burst is a killing mechanism for microbes, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, for the large white immune cell immune cell designated as a macrophage.

Particle size importance is proven conclusively by  at the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology in an extensive research project spanning two decades.  Further evidence is provided under the heading “micronization” for beta 1,3/1,6 glucan at www.betaglucan.org .However, more than small particle size on ingestion is required, because orally taken Beta Glucan reaggregates, or clumps back, into a larger size when exposed to water in the digestive process. This reaggregation effectively returns even reduced sized particles at time of intake back to a larger particle sizes due to clumping together in the digestive process. Unless processed to create non-aggregation, the globular/reaggregated glucan particles then arrive in globular sizes in the Peyers’ Patch of the lymphatic system to attempt to activate receptor sites dectin 1 or CR3 on the macrophage or other immune cells that are 1 to 3 microns in size. The large particle size is thus less effective in activation and has  reduced  immune potentiation capabilities.

Insoluble particulate Beta Glucan taken orally, in contrast to water soluble for injection, is marketed as a dietary food additive supplement that nutritionally empowers the immune system to normalize. Normalization refers to maintaining if functioning properly; building up if substandard and calming down if hyper. An immune system representing 20% of the body’s cells in peak condition provides the most protective disease defenses, faster recoveries, enhanced shielding from radiation damage plus environmental hazards and an extension of life associated with good health.  We all seek a quality, not just quantity of life and the immune system is a major key!

Further Beta Glucan Micronization Published Research: includes Baert K, De Geest B, Cox E, et al, “Duality of B-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants,” Int J Nanomedicine. 11: 2463–2469, May 31, 2016. PMCID:PMC 4898424,  https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S101881. Quote: β-glucan microparticles (GPs) are emerging microparticles known for their safety, immunogenicity, and high antigen encapsulation efficiency. These promising antigen carriers are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast).  The resulting GPs [B-glucan microparticles] were hollow and porous biomimetic 2–5 µm [micron] particles consisting of >85% β-1,3-D-glucan polymers (β-glucans), ~2% chitin, and <1% lipids and proteins, with the rest being mostly ash and moisture. [Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance to provoke an immune response in the body of a human and other animals. The B-glucan microparticles were micronized to be 2 to 5 microns in size.]

Note: Read the History of Beta Glucan Research from the Beta Glucan Research Organization

Each of us has an unbelievably complex immune system designed to protect us against all intrusions into the body that may cause harm.  Your immune system is your primary natural defense against disease and aging to be augmented when appropriate by pharmaceutical drugs available only with a prescription and subject in most instances to unwanted side effects that trigger the necessity for a prescription for purchase.  Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is a nutritional fuel for your immune system to assist in enabling a normalized immune response.

Beta Glucan nutritionally promotes normalization that includes regeneration of a suppressed immune response or a calming of a hyper immune response such as allergic reactions.  Joined with proper diet, moderate exercise, adequate rest and reduced stress, the immune system can be maintained or as a goal returned to peak condition when nutritionally normalized with Beta 1/3,1/6 glucan.  An immune response performing normally is a key to success for anyone seeking a healthy life.

Bottom line, in my opinion, everyone should take Beta Glucan with the amount dependent on whether Beta Glucan is taken to contribute to nutritional maintenance of good health, or as an attempt to nutritionally contribute to a normalization of a compromised or hyperactive immune system.  Take as directed on the label of a specific product.

Moderate exercise, proper diet, adequate rest, limited stress and an optimistic attitude with laughter and belief in a higher being all help to naturally enhance and maintain our immune systems.  A good multi-vitamin and various nutritional supplements, particularly Beta Glucan, are almost always beneficial to provide nutritional benefits when we fall short on proper diet, exercise, rest and reduced stress.

Some other often used supplements include Colostrum, CoEnzyme Q10, Aged Garlic, Astragalus, Grape Seed Extract, Bioflavanoids, Omega 3’s and a high quality multiple vitamin including vitamins C, D, E and B Complex with essential minerals including zinc, selenium and magnesium and enzymes.   Let’s be candid, we all fall short and abuse our body’s natural defenses!  Neither Beta Glucan nor any other supplement is a substitute for a healthy lifestyle, but since we are not perfect, our immune systems for most can benefit from supplementation from a micronized Beta Glucan of very high quality.

Beta 1,3/1,6d glucan has powerful antioxidant attributes, with heightened free-radical scavenging activity to nutritionally contribute to enabling the immune system to fight back against health invaders such as fungus, bacteria, viruses, parasites and radiation. Technically named Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, Beta Glucan is a long-chained polysaccharide molecule extracted from the cell wall of common Baker’s yeast as a purified isolate.  A medical school researched form is MG glucan, which is a microparticulate isolate extracted and processed to resolve certain negative characteristics, including reaggregation, exhibited in other glucans, but without change in chemical composition.

Beta Glucan is orally effective, non-toxic with enhanced effectiveness when delivered in small particle sizes (microparticulate) for help promote better absorption and ingestion into the immune system.  In this form the product is absorbed to a high percentage in your immune system, not just passed through and expelled by the body as large particle globular glucans, and ingested faster by more immune cells to go to work to attack and fight back against health invaders that constantly attempt to steal our good health. Think of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan as a key to your immune response engine to turn on the system to initiate the response needed for good health.

Evidence now shows Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is, from an evolutionary point of view, one of the most widely and most commonly observed activators in nature for the most ancient cell in the immune cascade, the Macrophage. The immune response potentiation of Beta Glucan crosses kingdom lines and has been found in all branches of the animal, bird, fish and plant kingdoms. Beta Glucan will nutritionally contribute to a modified immune response for you, your pets and your plants!

The research involving Beta Glucan began in the 1940’s with a history of Beta Glucan scientific discoveries by Dr. Nicholas DiLuzio, Dr. Joyce Czop, Dr. William Browder, Dr. Kenneth W. Hunter Jr. and others bringing us to today’s research status. An outstanding non-commercial website for reviewing Beta Glucan research is www.betaglucan.org with research listed by condition and disease instead of by researcher. The website also gives quotes related to the research references so those interested so that individual research studies do not have to be obtained unless more in depth study is desired. Most research studies have PubMed references to see the complete research.

Independent research and/or analysis from 1996-2020 at the University of Nevada School of Medicine and other laboratories under the direction of Kenneth W. Hunter, ScD confirmed prior research completed at Baylor College of Medicine in the laboratory of Professor Phil Wyde, Ph.D. as to the oral effectiveness of particulate-insoluble Beta Glucan in activating immunity.  Macrophages in studies significantly increased their immune response (phagocyte) activity in mice fed with Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan.  The Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan used in the University of Nevada School of Medicine immune research was MG Glucan provided by Nutritional Scientific Corporation (NSC).

These test results indicate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is a unique and effective oral immune activator.  Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is highly effective as a microparticulate oral dietary supplement with particle sizes 1-2 microns that will not re-aggregate after water contact during the digestive process. In summary, because the receptor sites for Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan on the macrophage are approximately 1 to 2 microns in size, microparticulate particle size has been demonstrated in the Medical School Research at the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, to be an important determinant of immune response activation and response.

Thousands of U.S. and international scientific studies, have been produced by such prestigious institutions as Baylor Medical School, Tulane University, Harvard Medical School and Oxford during the history of Beta Glucan research going back 5,000 years and research at the U. of Nevada School of Medicine (UNSM), including a peer-reviewed publication of partial research findings.  All attest to the immuno-activating and potential protective effects of Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan derived from yeast cell walls with current research confirming the benefits of micronization, or small particle glucan efficacy, compared to large particle size glucans.

Your personal physician/health provider should be consulted to evaluate personal medical conditions and related dosages of any drug or supplement.  However, most physicians are not familiar with the existence of Beta Glucan, much less the proper dosage.

Recent research at the University of Nevada School of Medicine has determined in a large study “in vitro” that a dosage of 10 milligrams per day of properly processed and micronized Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan extracted from yeast cell wall is an effective dosage. Others suggest 100 milligrams per day and more per day.  The amount suggested depends on source, quality, processing, research and other factors. The Beta Glucan utilized in this study was MG Glucan (not a commercial product name) provided by Nutritional Scientific Corporation.  For maintenance dosages, 3 mg per day is a suggested amount if the Beta 1,3/1/6d glucan is properly processed and very high quality.  The dosages were extrapolated from minute dosages in animals to determine the amount appropriate for a 160 pound human.

To attempt to micronize particulate Beta Glucan to a small microparticulate particle size of 1-4 microns is expensive, often involving complex processing steps to reduce the glucan down to a size of about 1/25,400 of an inch, the same approximate size as the glucan receptor site on the immune cells.  Another process step is also expensive due to proprietary equipment required for the process to assure the Beta Glucan does not re-aggregate back into larger clumps because larger clumps hinder optimum ingestion by the macrophage cells due to the restricted size of the receptor site.  Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan extracted and isolated with micronization has the same chemical structure, but is often described in research literature as MG or Microparticulate Glucan.

Very few Beta Glucan products on the market pay the extra expense of micronization and disaggregation of the glucan, the latter a process that assures the microparticulate particles will not “clump” back resembling a cluster grapes when exposed to water in the digestive process.

Questions to ask a manufacturer of a commercial Beta Glucan product:

  •      Is or has  the company sponsored extensive  medical school research in the United States under U.S. Government guidelines on Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan?
  •      Are any doctors in immunology directly associated with research and development of the Beta Glucan product?  If so, who and with what organization? When and how?  What research where and when?
  •      Are any consultants to the World Health Organization in immunology associated with direct product development or research,  with access to World Health Organization’ data bases and research?
  •      Do company products focus on Beta Glucan or is the Beta Glucan product just one of 100’s or 1,000’s, with little specific personnel knowledge about what Beta Glucan is; what it does and what distinguishes a marginal product from an outstanding product?
  •      What form of Beta Glucan is in the product to be taken orally, with the preferable form of this author being MG Beta 1,3/1,6 nonaggregated particulate Glucan.
  •      Does anyone producing the Beta Glucan product know what “reaggregation” or “non-aggregate” mean? (clumping when exposed to water)
  •      Check the www.fda.gov site to determine what Beta Glucan purveyors and their websites might have received FDA Warning Letters as to inappropriate claims on the websites.

Obviously, the more positive responses and absence of FDA Warnings, the higher the probabilities that the product you are buying is of demonstrated quality available based on current specific scientific research on the product in the bottle.  If a company will not or cannot answer these questions positively, dial again!

Almost all Beta Glucans selling very inexpensively are either basically fiber derived from grain (Beta 1,4 glucan), or are very large particle sizes with minimal, if any, processing to optimize immune activation and normalizations.  Some are even whole yeast cell walls without the Beta Glucan extracted at all.  Suggested dosages vary from low to high milligrams per serving dosages. However, larger particle sizes, reaggregation and cheap prices based on minimal processing are usually not better in Beta Glucans.  Rocks are not better than bullets as ammunition even though they weigh more and are of greater volume – the same with Beta Glucans. Less is more if Beta Glucans are processed correctly.  Don’t be shy.  Ask questions and if you do not get good answers, go elsewhere!

In summary, you will pay more for properly processed microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan from yeast cell wall that does not re-aggregate (99% of companies will not even know what you mean when you ask!), but it is probably significantly more effective than the inexpensively processed Beta Glucans.

A guideline to always follow: Where your health is concerned, 2nd best is not good enough!  Be informed and make a correct decision based on facts and research; not marketing hype.

Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan derived from the yeast cell walls of Baker’s Yeast is considered safe and non-toxic, with the Baker’s Yeast from which extraction occurs holding the classification of G-R-A-S (Generally Recognized as Safe) by the FDA as a dietary food additive supplement.  Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is an isolate extract derived from Baker’s yeast, but with no change in chemical composition.

No contra-indications with other pharmaceutical products are known to date, but always check with your personal health provider if you have questions in this regard.  If you are taking multiple pharmaceutical products and/or other supplements, any adverse reaction is almost certainly from the other sources, but in this instance always check immediately with your health provider/physician.  If any negative reactions occur, report the negative reactions to the product provider who in turn must notify the FDA of same. For more information on safety, go to www.betaglucan.org and go to the “safety” or “toxicity” categories.  Beta glucan should not be taken for auto-immune conditions without health provider review and approval.

Beta Glucans can be derived from yeast cell wall, oats and barley, mushrooms, algae, mannan and other sources, but for optimum activation of the immune response, none in my opinion compare to micronized and disaggregated Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan extracted from yeast cell wall (Baker’s yeast).  In fact, current medical school research demonstrates the MG Beta Glucan is more than twice as potent in immune potentiation relative to nitric oxide stimulation to kill microbes compared to other forms since others re-aggregate into less efficient sizes for ingestion on being subjected to water in the digestive process. Note the difference is the particle size and not the chemical composition of respective Beta 1,3/1,6 glucans.

Dr. Joyce Czop from Harvard Medical School determined that Beta Glucan from yeast cell wall is up to 100 times more effective than mannan in immuno-potentiation.  Glucans derived from grains minimally affect the immune response, but do help in lowering cholesterol.

Beta Glucans are absorbed through the intestine wall, transported by M cells to the Peyer’s Patch and then ingested by the Macrophage immune cells via Beta Glucan receptors of approximately two microns in size. Large particle or globular size Beta Glucans are inexpensive primarily because they are minimally processed and not reduced to microparticulate size of 1 to 4 microns particle size for superior immune response potentiation.

After transferal from the intestine to the lymphatic system in the Peyer’s Patch, the Beta Glucan must be ingested by immune cells known as Macrophages.  T cells, NK cells and B cells are in turn potentiated in what is called the immune cascade.  Beta Glucan consumption is easier with more Beta Glucan ingested faster if in microparticulate bits the size of the receptor sites, in contrast to large chunks or reaggregated clumps of glucan after exposure to water in the digestive process that hinder fast and complete ingestion.

Finally, more immune cells will ingest the smaller particles in size, increasing the saturation factor.  Thus, a higher percentage of micronized Beta Glucan enters the immune system faster, which potentiates more immune cells to enable an immune response with greater numbers of activated immune cells targeted to kill and dispose of the pathogens.

Medical school research at the University of Nevada School of Medicine under the direction of Dr. Kenneth Hunter ScD, demonstrates the immune potentiation by Beta Glucan is dependent on ingestion and not just contact with the glucan receptors on these white immune cells.  See Beta Glucan Scientific Research at www.betaglucan.org .

Because Beta Glucan receptor sites are approximately 1 to 3 microns in size, Beta Glucans in 1-4 micron particle sizes (micro-particulates) are ingested easier, faster and more completely by the Macrophages than larger sized glucans that do not fit the receptor site and thus must be broken down first to be ingested. Ingestion by the immune cells is then in lesser amounts with time delays caused by the inefficient and slow process of the Macrophage cells attempt to reduce the particles sizes chemically. An immune enhancer, technically a biological response modifier, should be highly ingestible by immune cells to create a rapid and needed size of immune response relative to pathogen risks.

Although Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan is extracted from Baker’s yeast, if properly extracted, it is a pure isolate containing no harmful yeast proteins that would cause an allergic reaction or aggravate any existing yeast allergic condition.  The mannose-proteins that are primarily responsible for allergic reactions to yeast are on the exterior surface of yeast cells and are completely removed during the process utilized to extract, micronize and disaggregate MG Beta Glucan.  The extraction process however does not alter the chemical composition of the original source.

Extracted MG Beta Glucan contains miniscule amounts of residual internal protein that creates an immune cell response to the MG Beta Glucan as being from yeast origin, but upon discovering they mimic but are no longer harmful yeast, the activated immune cells will then seek our true fungi and other pathogens in the body.

Because mannose-protein on the yeast cell wall surface is eliminated and the minimal internal proteins are void of any harmful yeast factors, MG Beta Glucan is non-allergenic, creating no allergic reactions or sensitivities when properly processed and taken orally.

Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan normalizes the Macrophage immune cell, but the immune response does not occur until an activated Macrophage ingests a foreign invader (bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite); then displays the invader’s “antigen” for recognition (APC cell) by a T-Cell (Thymus immune cell) or B-Cell; thus initiating the full immune response, both innate and adaptive.

MG Glucan is often used during these conditions to nutritionally normalize the immune response.  Very limited research to date has indicated that Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is not indicated to be a positive influence in an auto-immunity response in SLE or systemic lupus erythematosus ; however, in specific situations check with your personal health provider for evaluation and approval prior to usage.

To my knowledge, there are no known or reported adverse effects to date when Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan is combined with pharmacological drugs or natural products, but always ask your physician should you have questions in this regard. The only warning would be to not inhale a significant amount of the Beta Glucan in powder form externally due to potential to create an inflammatory response in the lungs. Since the Beta Glucan is taken as an oral dietary supplement in capsule form in minuscule volume, this is a significant risk only for those processing large amounts of Beta Glucans externally and not in intake of small mg amounts of Beta Glucan in a capsule.  A laboratory conforming to handling and process regulations while utilizing proper laboratory procedures for safety in processing microparticulate substances would eliminate this form of risk.

Macrophages are large white immune cells representing the first line of defense in the initiation and maintenance of the immune response.  Like all blood cells, Macrophages originate in the bone marrow from a pluripotent stem cell.  As it matures and enters the blood stream it becomes a monocyte.  Monocytes enlarge in the blood before entering the tissue as mature Macrophages.

From an evolutionary point of view, the Macrophage is the oldest and most consistently preserved immunologically competent cell known. Not only humans and higher animals, but primitive invertebrates such as Hydra which have no other immunological effector cells, have Macrophages.

Macrophages with various names in different sizes exist in all tissues, organs, blood and lymph and are classified as phagocytes to devour, breakdown and dispose of foreign particles in the cell-mediated immune response.  Macrophages vary in sizes: spleen-5 microns; peritoneal cavity-10 microns; and aveolar-lungs-15-21 microns. What is the peritoneal cavity? The peritoneal cavity is a membrane-bound and fluid-filled abdominal cavity of mammals, which contains the liver, spleen, most of the gastro-intestinal tract and other viscera, including macrophages, B cells and T cells. Macrophages also participate in the innate, or non-specific immune first response, that attacks and attempts to kill any substance that does not originate in the body known as “non-self.”

In order to function defensively, the Macrophages must pass through a state of activation which involves certain form and structure changes.  Most importantly, a sequence of metabolic changes occurs which results in the production of a series of cytokines.  Cytokines act as protein internal regulators of the immune system. Activation can be initiated by a variety of different stimuli such as endotoxin, bacteria, viruses, fungi or chemicals.

The activated Macrophage is very potent in the immune response. A Macrophage can recognize and kill tumor cells non-specifically (innate), as well as remove foreign debris. It also can produce a number of essential cytokines that are able to stimulate the immune system in general and boost bone marrow production.

To be activated by Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, the Macrophage must ingest the Beta Glucan through glucan receptor sites one-two microns in size and then through a unique protein expression classified as B7. Antigens are then presented to T-cells to initiate an appropriate immune response, including the B-cells and the production of appropriate antibodies. Beta Glucan is recognized by different receptors on cell membranes including macrophages, but also monocyes, dendritic cells and NK cells.  The two most important receptors are Dectin-1 and CR3 which is CD11b/CD18..

After binding, there can be direct receptor activation and/or cellular pahway activation.  Subsequently, glucan can impact other pars of the body’s defense apparatus, including cytokine production and antibody responses.

There are several types of Beta Glucan; however, Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan from the cell wall of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the most active and potent immune normalizer.  A three dimensional model of this molecule reveals a helix and research at Harvard University has shown that receptors specifically for Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan from yeast cell wall exist on the Macrophage cell membrane.  As a long-chained polysaccharide, Beta Glucan differs from other sugar molecules such as Glucose.

Glucose is a simple saccharide that the body transforms to energy as ATP and stores in muscles, liver and other tissues in a form of glycogen. Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan is different from energy-storing glucose containing polysaccharides because the connection between the glucose units is different. More specifically, it is the Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan linkage that makes this compound  unique.  A potent particulate Beta Glucan from yeast cell wall based on medical school research to date is described in scientific literature as MG Glucan.

The aging process has been defined as “the sum total of life’s physical embarrassment due to adverse conditions.”  If it is assumed that an activated immune response minimizes the occurrence of adverse conditions, Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan may be an anti-aging nutritional supplement due to immunopotentiating and modifying characteristics.  The lowering of the effectiveness of the immune function to one of being immuno-compromised is one of the main elements of the aging process. Health invaders (pathogens) attack us throughout life and the debilitating effects of disease and compromised health contribute to what we characterize as aging.  Because of aging in which natural immune cell production declines,, many individuals have a compromised immune defense system.

Individuals with a compromised immune defense system are more susceptible to arthritis; reduced wound healing capacity; reduced bone marrow proliferation with resulting lowered white cell counts and anemia; increased incidence of cancers; and increased incidence of viral, fungal, and bacterial infection. In addition, the immune system is impaired by numerous environmental factors such as UV radiation, environmental toxins, food preservatives and even antibiotics and other prescription drugs. A healthy immune response and immune organs acting productively with nutritional activation and modification by Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is a positive factor contributing to “Anti-Aging” and and hopefully an extended life span.

Physical and emotional stress and intense physical exercise can negatively effect the immune system. Documentation in research demonstrates generally healthy athletes frequently suffer from influenza or pneumonia following heavy periods of intense exercise. The excess production of the hormone cortisol is believed to be contributory to immune suppression related to stress.

The same immuno-suppression is observed in people with stress-related diseases, such as coronary disease. Under these influences, the number of Macrophages available are reduced and unable to participate in the immune cascade which causes even deeper immuno-suppression. Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan has been shown to nutritionally both potentiate and activate Macrophage cells which may assist in countering these effects.

Suggested is a review of research involving cancer and Beta Glucan at the non-commercial website www.betaglucan.org . In the 1970’s, Peter Mansell, M.D., conducted studies in which Beta Glucan was injected into subcutaneous nodules of malignant melanoma. Subsequent biopsies of the injection sites found no evidence of melanoma, just a collection of obviously activated Macrophages.

Extensive research continues in this area and again, we encourage frequent review of the non-ommercia website www.betaglucan.org which reviews Beta Glucan research by health condition.  Beta Glucan has been scientifically demonstrated to nutritionally promote generation of immunocytes in the bone marrow which are depleted by cancer – a very important potentiation to keep a strong immune response in the face of debilitating disease.

Yes.  Numerous studies indicate Beta Glucan, when combined with other substances, particularly antifungals, or pharmaceuticals, can act as an adjuvant to make the combination stronger than either ingredient acting independently.

Research is increasing on utilization of Beta Glucan as a vaccine delivery system.  In these systems, the insoluble particulate glucans are prepared as hollow spheres which can then carry different types of compounds, with an outer shell of the sphere actively binding to specific receptors on cells in the delivery process.

The U.S. Armed Forces Radiobiology Institute performed oral research with Beta Glucan. In a well-controlled study, rats were given a lethal dose of radiation. Seventy percent of these rats were completely protected from the radiation effects when given a dose of yeast extracted Beta Glucan by mouth AFTER the radiation.

Dr. A.J. Carrow, M.D. conducted studies with a commercial Beta Glucan product reported in the “Townsend Letter for Doctors.”  In his limited study in his clinic, Dr. Carrow had positive results in women suffering from breast cancer being successfully shielded from radiation negatives compared to those who did not receive the Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan product.

Myra Patchen, Ph.D., co-author of the military study, confirmed that Beta Glucan is also a free radical scavenger. Blood Macrophages are protected by Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan from free radical attack during and after radiation exposure.  The Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan allowed these cells to continue their important functions in the irradiated body and release factors important to the restoration of normal bone marrow production.

Free radical scavenging testing involving Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan in different models confirmed the antioxidant effect. The powerful free radical fighting abilities of Beta Glucan are a major benefit to better health and longer life based on the known potential of free radicals to accelerate aging, cause cancer and other diseases.

Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan triggers immune cells to initiate an anti-fungal immune response, shown in experiments with Candida albicans. The broad anti-infective spectrum of Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan effects can be explained by the fact that the immuno-potentiation produced by this unique material is due to the immune cells response to what they think is pathogenic fungus, but in fact is a harmless isolate extraction from yeast cell wall.  Once activated, the immune cells then seek out actual fungi in the body, including Candida. Research at Oxford University also demonstrates the effectiveness of Beta 1/3-1/6-d glucan as well as decades of research available by a search on Pub Med by entering the words, “Beta Glucan.”

About Frank M. Jordan

Frank M. Jordan is a noted author, lecturer, commentator, researcher and co-inventor with several U.S. and Foreign Patents Issued or Pending, including U.S. Patent 6,476,003 issued related to Beta 1,3/1,6d glucan from yeast cell wall and the immune response. Jordan received a Master’s degree in post-graduate studies from The University of Texas at Austin and serves as President of Carmel Research, Inc., a corporation involved in Beta Glucan research and Beta Glucan patents for decades, in addition to being CEO of Nutritional Scientific Corporation.  Jordan is and has been qualified as a Beta Glucan and immune response expert witness by a U.S. Federal Court.  Frank Jordan’s 500+ Health Commentaries as podcast and 50+ YouTube videos on health can also be heard and accessed on www.nsc24.com.

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